Dizahn The material universe arises out of the conjunction of four kinds of atoms: Furthermore, the sort of inference admitted by the Nyaya, in which the major term is universally present, is rejected because nothing save brahman has this property according to the system. Manifestation is of the five instruments of cognition. The Charvakas regard the scriptures as characterized by the three faults: Read more Read less. Talk:Samkhya Pravachana Sutra — Wikiwand Bhaskara subscribed to the general Vedanta thesis that knowledge is intrinsically true, though falsity is extrinsic to it. Without the mind to identify with the world there is no consciousness, perceived or real. The varying psychological responses of pravachaba beings are thus hypostatized and made into component properties or elements of nature—an argument whose fallacy was exposed, among others, by Shankara.

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Posted By: Jon Fergus on: September 13, Previously, we attempted a brief introduction to the great founder of the Sankhya philosophy, the Sage Kapila , along with an exploration of certain fragments relating to the original Sankhya teachings , which have been covered by a thick veil of time. We will attempt now to give a quick introduction to the Sankhya system as it is known today, bringing in theosophical interpretations to provide additional perspectives on key ideas. Sankhya or Samkhya, one of the six Darshanas or schools of Indian philosophy, is said to have been founded by the sage Kapila.

Sankhya is said to provide the conceptual framework of Yoga philosophy , and the two schools are seen as a complimentary pair. In the Bhagavad Gita, Book V, Krishna says: Children, not wise men, speak of Sankhya and Yoga as different; he who has perfectly mastered one finds the fruit of both. The goal that is gained by the Sankhyas, is also reached by the followers of Yoga; who sees Sankhya and Yoga as one, he indeed sees!

We can only say that both certainly belong to a period long before Buddha, and that the Upanishads are much older than Kapila. Over time a fog began to envelop the true Sankhya teachings, until that primary and once-high system devolved into a shell of its former self, becoming hardly more than an intellectual sophistry of illogical dualism.

It would seem, if we attempt an overview, that the system has passed into its own Kali Yuga, a dark age in which little, perhaps nothing, of the original teachings is properly understood. As time progressed the system fell almost entirely out of use, and when the west first began to mine the soil of India for its treasures of philosophy, metaphysics and spirituality there was hardly a soul there to interpret the meaning of the philosophy and its core texts had falling into disuse, almost abandoned altogether.

With the arrival of the west came renewed interest in Sankhya, even if solely for historical or scholarly ends, and this has led to the unearthing of texts, and comparative study of such texts see here for more on these developments. We have now a system that had fallen out of use, being once more picked up, dusted off and examined. The core of the Sankhya philosophy comprises a treatment of the 25 tattvas, and their complex interrelations, the full-scope of which is a complete system of emanation, by which the Manifest comes to be, out of the Unmanifest.

Other theosophical students likewise intimately associate Purusha with the Logos. Nature is declared to be the source of cause, causing and effect; Spirit is declared to be the cause, in the tasting of pleasures and pains.

Who thus knows Spirit, and Nature with her powers, whatever may be his walk here, such a one enters not into rebirth.

However, when we understand the true position of Purusha neither evolving, nor an evolute we understand that the system is not, in fact, dualistic, but only seemingly so. Prakriti is said to be either unmanifest or manifest; the former being termed Pradhana. It is explained that Prakriti unmanifest is the perfect equilibrium of the gunas, manifest is the activity or non-equilibrium of the gunas. In the Sankhya philosophy the gunas are the properties or elements that constitute Prakriti.

Sankhya teaches that it is the action of the gunas, first upon each other—i. Rajas acting upon Sattva giving rise to Buddhi, thence Ahamkara, Manas, and the indriyas—and second upon that which they evolute—i.

Tamas acting upon Ahamkara giving rise to the tan-matras and thence the gross elements—that establishes the entirety of manifested Nature. Entranced by the forms resting on these Three Powers, this whole world recognizes not Me, who am above them, everlasting. For wondrous is this Glamour [maya] of mine, formed of the Three Powers, very hard to pass beyond; but they who come to Me pass indeed beyond this Glamour. As we see here, it is from the gunas that arise Buddhi and Manas, terms well familiar to theosophical students.

But we must add to this another term treated in Sankhya: Mahat. In Sankhya we find all three of these terms explored from a slightly different angle than we do in modern theosophical literature, but again we may try to bring light to the ideas by looking through eastern texts and theosophical literature. Let us continue our exploration: Mahat lit. From one perspective Buddhi is said to be the characteristic property of Mahat. It is in essence one with Parabrahm, the eternally Unknowable.

But while unknowable in its unmanifested form, the divine element is knowable in its manifested form; Atma is knowable when it is revealed as Buddhi. Sankhya teaches that due to cosmic vibration in Prakriti, the equilibrium of the gunas is disturbed, leading Rajas to act upon Sattva, which gives rise to Buddhi.

And, Manas lit. In the Sankhya philosophy, Manas stands at the head of the ten indriyas—the five powers of cognition and five powers of action.

Assimilation and differentiation are its distinctive functions. The meaning of Manas varies [in ancient texts] between feeling and thinking, but its essence seems to be, that it receives the reports of the senses and combines them, reporting to Buddhi, which pronounces judgments on the grouped pictures thus formed and presented to it. The whole of this complex of the senses, Manas and Buddhi is suffused with consciousness, thus forming the self of ordinary waking life.

The other tattva involved in this process is Ahamkara, or Egoity. Personality, Egoism. From that ego the group of sixteen. That is, the five subtle elements. This group of sixteen is produced from the ego. The five indiryas of Action karmendriyas are the powers located in the Hands, Feet, Vocal Instrument, the Excretory Organ and the Organ of Generation—or: grasping, moving, speech, elimination and reproduction.

At the head of the indriyas stands Manas. Let us wrap-up this brief exploration with a diagram drawn from The Sacred Books of the Hindus, Volume XI: Samkhya Philosophy : In the interest of promoting new and enlivened study of Sankhya we have begun to compile texts, articles and reference material on the system.

We believe all students of eastern philosophy, and all theosophists, will benefit greatly from even a basic study of the principles of this most ancient of systems. We also believe that much light can be shed on orthodox interpretations of Sankhya by those who have studied these ideas from the unique perspective offered by theosophical literature.



The Samkhya-sutras are a much later work c. Among independent works, mention may be made of Tattvasamasa c. Metaphysics and epistemology For Vachaspati, creation was viewed in terms of the mere presence of the selves and the mere presentation to them of Matter the undifferentiated primeval stuff. Such a view has obvious difficulties, for it would make creation eternal, because the selves and Matter are eternally copresent. Vijnanabhikshu considered the relation between the selves and Matter to be a real relation that affects Matter but leaves the selves unaffected. Furthermore, whereas the earlier Samkhya authors, including Vachaspati , did not consider the question about the ontological status of the guna s, Bhikshu regards them as real, as extremely subtle substances—so that each guna is held to be infinite in number. In general, the Samkhya-sutras show a greater Brahmanical influence, and there is a clear tendency to explain away the points of difference between the Samkhya and the Vedanta.


Samkhya Pravachana Sutra

Kit Introductiin say that such entities exist though there is no means of knowing them is regarded as absurd, for no unverifiable assertion of existence is meaningful. Anhankara generates a parvachana sense of self that is based solely on the materiality of the world around Parrot The conjunction of Purusa and the Pradhana is, like that of the halt and the blind, for mutual benefit, that is, for the exhibition of the Pradhana to Purusa and for the isolation of Purusa. To take the case of a coin, for example: The logicians developed the notion of negation to a great degree of sophistication. Compassion also is impossible ; for compassion implies the desire to alleviate, remove or prevent suffering, pravachaha prior to creation there is no existence of the Jivas, Indriyas, Bodies, and Objects, and conse quently no pain, no suffering. According to Tattvarthasutra, a major Jain text, the severance of vitalities out of passion is injury, according to the Purushartha Siddhyupaya, non-manifestation of passions like attachment is non-injury, and manifestation of such passions itroduction injury. Hence the twofold creation is established.

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Movements: Sankhya (2)


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