However, these findings rely on late-dating Indian texts, in which verses and mantras are often kept in more archaic forms. The "Split" manuscript is evidently a copy of an earlier text, confirming that the text may date before the 1st century CE. Statue belongs to 18 CAD, Tibet. The texts may have other Sanskrit titles as well, or different variations which may be more descriptive. The lengths specified by the titles are given below. Both have been translated into many languages and have often been commented upon.

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These great Bodhisattvas are all majestically adorned [with merit and wisdom] and standing on the Ground of No Regress. The Buddha knew that the assembly had convened. I actually arrived later. Because I delight in making the right observation to benefit sentient beings.

As you manifest such great majesty for all sentient beings, your mind does not see the appearance of majesty. Although I activate the mind of great majesty for all sentient beings, I never see the appearances of sentient beings. Although I am adorned with great majesty for all sentient beings, their realm neither increases nor decreases. Suppose a Buddha stays in a world for a kalpa or over a kalpa. Although each world has only one Buddha, there are as many Buddhas as the innumerable, boundless sands of the Ganges.

Suppose they all pronounce the Dharma day and night for a kalpa or over a kalpa, never resting their minds. Yet the realm of sentient beings neither increases nor decreases. This applies to all Buddha Lands in the ten directions. Why not? Because the definite appearances of sentient beings can never be captured. Hence, the realm of sentient beings neither increases nor decreases. Because I say that, in all dharmas, not a single dharma can be captured.

Because one sees neither increase nor decrease in the dharma realm. Dharmas are neither beautiful nor ugly because they are free from appearances. Dharmas are neither high nor low because they are equal in dharma nature. Dharmas are beyond being grasped or abandoned because they abide in true reality.

Very good! Because that no dharma can be captured is called anuttara. Nor do I differentiate dharmas into ordinary beings, voice-hearers, and Pratyekabuddhas. Hence it is called the unsurpassed Buddha Dharma. Even voice-hearers, of whom some are still learning and others have nothing more to learn, and Pratyekabuddhas should train for their bodhi fruit without separating from this Dharma Seal.

They do not even see the states of Buddhas, much less those of voice-hearers, Pratyekabuddhas, or ordinary beings. One should not grasp appearances, whether conceivable or inconceivable. How should I abide in the Buddha Vehicle? How can I acquire it? How can the unimpeded acquire the unimpeded? I presently see that dharmas abide in true reality. Because dharmas have never had any appearances. Moreover, they can reveal and explicate [the teachings] to others and can have them train accordingly.

What I describe is only the appearance of bodhi. You have so skillfully explained the meaning of this profound Dharma. You have long planted your roots of goodness under past Buddhas, training with purity in the Brahma way of life according to the dharma of no appearance. I now see neither appearance nor no appearance.

How can I be said to train in the Brahma way of life according to the dharma of no appearance? Nor do I hold the great view, the small view, the view to overcome, or the view not to overcome. I hold neither a view nor its opposite view. How do you view the Buddha Vehicle? Nor do I see anyone training for bodhi or attaining bodhi.

How does one observe a Buddha? Just as self is only a name, so too Buddha is only a name. Realizing the emptiness of a name is bodhi. One should seek bodhi without using names. The appearance of bodhi is free from words. Because words and bodhi are both empty. That which has neither birth nor death, neither names nor appearances, and is neither coming nor going, is called Buddha.

Only the wise can understand that this is called observing a Buddha. No one can know the Dharma expounded in this way. Because the appearance of bodhi cannot be known through such dharmas as seeing, hearing, capturing, thinking, speaking, or listening.

Bodhi is empty and silent in nature and appearance, with no birth, no death, no attaining, no knowing, no shape, and no form. How can there be an attainer of bodhi?

Because the World-Honored One is the dharma realm. Verifying the dharma realm by means of the dharma realm would be a contradiction. Because in the dharma realm sentient beings have no appearances, as all dharmas are empty. The emptiness of all dharmas is bodhi, which is non-dual and free from differentiation. Without a knower, there are no words. Without words, there is neither existence nor nonexistence, neither knowing nor not knowing.

This is true for all dharmas. Because dharmas cannot be identified by places, which imply a definite nature. For example, the sinful appearance of the [five] rebellious acts is inconceivable. Because the true reality of dharmas is indestructible. Thus, the sin of committing a rebellious act has no self-essence. Because all karmic conditions abide in true reality, which is neither coming nor going, neither cause nor effect.

Because the dharma realm has no edge, neither front nor back. They are neither worthy nor unworthy of offerings, neither ending nor not ending their afflictions. Because [in emptiness] all dharmas abide in equality. Because, having eradicated all of his afflictions, an Arhat has nothing to overcome. Those who take fallible mental actions are called ordinary beings. Because ordinary beings do not act in accord with the dharma realm and are therefore called the fallible ones.

You now have well explained to me the meaning of an Arhat, who has ended his afflictions and the discharges thereof. I am a true Arhat, who has ended his afflictions. For this reason, I am called an Arhat, who has ended his afflictions. Because the appearance of bodhi is true suchness. Because bodhi has no appearance, who can sit and who can rise?

Because bodhi and the five rebellious acts are free from duality. Hence there is neither learning nor learner, neither perceiving nor perceiver, neither knowing nor knower, neither differentiating nor differentiator. Such appearances are called bodhi. In the same way one should view the appearances of the five rebellious acts. If there are those who say that they see bodhi and have attained it, we should know that they are the ones with exceeding arrogance. Suchness does not have an appearance that can be called suchness.

Buddhas have the one appearance, the inconceivable appearance. Because all Buddhas have the same one appearance, the inconceivable appearance. The inconceivable appearance has neither birth nor death. If future Buddhas were to appear in their worlds, then all Buddhas [of the past, present, and future] would also appear in their worlds.

Because in what is inconceivable, there is no appearance of past, future, or present. Because these three types of beings, having heard the profound Dharma, are able neither to criticize nor to praise it. Because all mental appearances are inconceivable. Yet neither the speaker nor the listener can be captured. Because they abide in the dharma realm. Sentient beings in the dharma realm have no differentiated appearances.

The appearance of endlessness is the unexcelled fortune field. Because He has no appearances, such as light or dark, birth or death, He is called the fortune field. If one can understand the appearances of the fortune field in this way, the seeds of goodness one plants deeply will neither increase nor decrease.

Cultivating goodness in the field in accordance with the Dharma is also inconceivable. Planting seeds in this way is called no increase and no decrease, and it is also the unexcelled, superb fortune field. When past Buddhas pronounced in this place the appearances of the fortune field to benefit sentient beings, the entire world also quaked in six different ways.


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