The beginning of each month is contingent on the visibility of the moon at the end of the previous month. Once the moon is sighted, the new month commences. Each month starts with a new lunar cycle. Hence, the Muslim Calendar gives only a tentative overview of the upcoming Islamic dates as the start of each month is subject to the sighting of the moon. The Islamic calendar consists of 12 months similar to the Gregorian calendar.
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Main article: Pre-Islamic calendar For central Arabia, especially Mecca , there is a lack of epigraphical evidence but details are found in the writings of Muslim authors of the Abbasid era. Inscriptions of the ancient South Arabian calendars reveal the use of a number of local calendars. At least some of these South Arabian calendars followed the lunisolar system.
It was not intended to establish a fixed calendar to be generally observed. Others concur that it was originally a lunar calendar, but suggest that about years before the Hijra it was transformed into a lunisolar calendar containing an intercalary month added from time to time to keep the pilgrimage within the season of the year when merchandise was most abundant.
Al-Biruni also says this did not happen,  and the festivals were kept within their season by intercalation every second or third year of a month between Dhu al-Hijjah and Muharram. There are two big drawbacks of such a system, which would explain why it is not known ever to have been used anywhere in the world.
First, it cannot be regulated by means of a cycle the only cycles known in antiquity were the octaeteris 3 intercalations in 8 years and the enneadecaeteris 7 intercalations in 19 years. Secondly, without a cycle it is difficult to establish from the number of the year a if it is intercalary and b if it is intercalary, where exactly in the year the intercalation is located.
Although some scholars see list above claim that the holy months were shuffled about for convenience without the use of intercalation, there is no documentary record of the festivals of any of the holy months being observed in any month other than those they are now observed in. If they were shuffled as suggested, one would expect there to be a prohibition against "anticipation" as well. If the festivities of the sacred months were kept in season by moving them into later months, they would move through the whole twelve months in only 33 years.
Had this happened, at least one writer would have mentioned it. Sura 9. Such adjustment can only be effected by intercalation.
There are a number of indications that the intercalated calendar was similar to the Jewish calendar, whose year began in the spring. Military campaigns clustered round Ramadan, when the summer heat had dissipated, and all fighting was forbidden during Rajab, at the height of summer. The invasion of Tabak in Rajab AH 9 was hampered by "too much hot weather" and "drought". The number of the months, with God, is twelve in the Book of God, the day that He created the heavens and the earth; four of them are sacred.
That is the right religion. So wrong not each other during them. And fight the unbelievers totally even as they fight you totally and know that God is with the godfearing. Know that intercalation nasi is an addition to disbelief. Those who disbelieve are led to error thereby, making it lawful in one year and forbidden in another in order to adjust the number of the months made sacred by God and make the sacred ones permissible. The evil of their course appears pleasing to them.
But God gives no guidance to those who disbelieve. They observe the divine precept with respect to the number of the sacred months, but in fact they profane that which God has declared to be inviolable, and sanctify that which God has declared to be profane.
Assuredly time, in its revolution, has returned to such as it was at the creation of the heavens and the earth. In the eyes of God the number of the months is twelve. Among these twelve months four are sacred, namely, Rajab, which stands alone, and three others which are consecutive.
The single forbidden month is Rajab , month 7. These months were considered forbidden both within the new Islamic calendar and within the old pagan Meccan calendar.
The Christian liturgical day, kept in monasteries, begins with vespers see vesper , which is evening, in line with the other Abrahamic traditions. Christian and planetary weekdays begin at the following midnight. Thus "gathering day" is often regarded as the weekly day off. This is frequently made official, with many Muslim countries adopting Friday and Saturday e. A few others e.
Islamic (Hijri) Calendar Year 2010 M
Islamic (Hijri) Calendar Year 2010 CE
1431 Hijri calendar