None Impact Top of page Since the s, stands of cypresses and junipers in many countries have been seriously damaged by C. Sporadic outbreaks have been reported from western and southern Europe, e. The population since described as Cinara cupressivora has been recorded causing damage in Colombia and Mauritius Watson et al. From its initial introduction point in Malawi, Africa, it spread through southern and eastern Africa, where it caused extensive damage in eight countries Ciesla, ; Murphy et al.
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None Impact Top of page Since the s, stands of cypresses and junipers in many countries have been seriously damaged by C. Sporadic outbreaks have been reported from western and southern Europe, e.
The population since described as Cinara cupressivora has been recorded causing damage in Colombia and Mauritius Watson et al. From its initial introduction point in Malawi, Africa, it spread through southern and eastern Africa, where it caused extensive damage in eight countries Ciesla, ; Murphy et al.
The main species of cypress grown commercially in Kenya and many other countries in eastern Africa, is Cupressus lusitanica, which is favoured for its rapid growth rate and excellent form.
This species is highly sensitive to feeding by the cypress aphid Ciesla, Observation of a stand of mature C. Other damaged trees did recover from the damage if left unfilled Orondo and Day, Environmental Impact Top of page Juniperus procera is a major indigenous species of high-elevation forests in eastern Africa. Although not damaged as severely by the cypress aphid as Cupressus lusitanica, the loss of this tree in water catchment areas could result in soil erosion and the loss of water quality Ciesla, Impact: Biodiversity Top of page The national tree of Malawi, the native Mulanje cedar Widdringtonia nodiflora , is confined to the Mulanje massif in widely scattered stands.
The remaining population is severely threatened by exploitation, fire and attack by the cypress aphid Chapman, , and few new seedlings survive to full growth.
The future of this potentially very valuable tree currently hangs in the balance, and a long-term programme of re-planting and conservation is needed to ensure its survival in the wild.
The endemic species, Juniperus procera, has also been negatively impacted by cypress aphid attack but is more widespread and less endangered than the Mulanje cedar Ciesla, Cupressus lusitanica was also a key agroforestry species and was widely planted for windbreaks, used as a source of fuelwood, and used for living fences and hedges.
Numerous dead trees in rural and urban areas increased the risk of wildfire that could endanger life and property Ciesla, Diagnosis Top of page The identification of C. This requires great care, as the tips of the legs and antennae detach very easily. Microscopic examination is necessary to discern the distinguishing characters mentioned above. Detection and Inspection Top of page Examine the inner and lower parts of the canopy for signs of sooty mould growth, which develops in close proximity to colonies of the aphids.
The aphids themselves are extremely difficult to see because their brown bodies are so similar to that of the bark on which they sit. Ciesla provided a photograph of a colony of Cinara cupressivora. The wingless adult females of other members of the subgenus Cupressobium can be distinguished from C.
However, in C. Prevention and Control Top of page Due to the variable regulations around de registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control.
Observations on the impact of infestation on different tree species in the arboretum indicated that there is a wide range of tolerance between different species Obiri, Thuja spp.
In the genus Cupressus, the most tolerant species were Cupressus torulosa, Cupressus funebris and Cupressus arizonica, whereas the most susceptible were Cupressus benthamii [Cupressus lusitanica var.
Results with hybrid trees indicated that resistance breeding through hybridization might offer a viable long-term solution to the aphid problem. The study of a stand of mature Cupressus lusitanica in Kenya indicated that the degree of aphid damage varied from one tree to another Orondo and Day, The progeny of some highly susceptible trees were highly resistant, indicating that resistance was being transmitted in the pollen from resistant neighbours. The results indicated that there was a strong additive genetic control, which could allow for the effective selection and breeding for resistance.
It was suggested that one cycle of selection might yield a resistant population. A subsequent study found that selection for resistance to aphid damage was unlikely to have adverse effects on economically important traits such as the height and diameter of the trunk Kamunya et al.
Another study of resistance in 32 families of C. Ten families were recommended for use in breeding, to widen the genetic base of future forests in the region Mugasha et al. Biological Control A biological control agent, Pauesia juniperorum, was introduced to Malawi from Europe Chilima, and has reduced the impact of the cypress aphid there.
It was subsequently introduced to Kenya and Uganda Day et al. Day et al. Chemical Control Cypress aphids live deep inside the canopy because they avoid bright light. Consequently they would be very difficult to reach using topical applications of insecticides. Akitu, No. Survey for aphid species in Libya. Arab Journal of Plant Protection, 18 1
Afide del Cipresso (Cinara cupressi). Riconoscimento e lotta.
Zypressen Blattlaus German , cypress aphid English Synonym Similar species Summary Cinara cupressi is a brownish soft-bodied insect classified as an aphid. The overall effect on the tree ranges from partial damage to eventual death of the entire tree. This aphid has seriously damaged commercial and ornamental plantings of trees around the globe. They are about 2. Adults are winged or wingless.
Taxonomy[ edit ] Several species of aphid have been described on cypresses and related trees in various parts of the world. The species Lachnus juniperinus was described from Poland on Juniperus communis and Thuja occidentalis , but all these species have since been synonymised with C. The insect in Europe and the Middle East has been described as C. These species are not separable using morphological characters alone, and a determination as to whether they are valid species awaits molecular evidence. It is orangish to yellowish-brown with black markings, lightly dusted on the dorsal surface with pale grey wax. On the thorax the black bands are longitudinal, but are transverse on the abdomen with a rather larger blacker patch between the siphunculi. The whole insect is clad in fine short hairs.