In Alan Guth realized that false vacuum decay in the early universe would solve the problem, leading him to propose a scalar-driven inflation. Early inflationary models Guth proposed inflation in January to explain the nonexistence of magnetic monopoles;   it was Guth who coined the term "inflation". Like Guth, they concluded that such a model not only required fine tuning of the cosmological constant, but also would likely lead to a much too granular universe, i. The physical size of the Hubble radius solid line as a function of the linear expansion scale factor of the universe. During cosmological inflation, the Hubble radius is constant.
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His early childhood was unremarkable, although he showed a strong aptitude for mathematics. After attending several public schools, he skipped his senior year to enrol in a five-year program at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology MIT , partly because he was concerned about being drafted for the Vietnam War, of which he strongly disapproved. In , he married his high school sweetheart, Susan Tisch, and they were to have two children: Lawrence and Jennifer However, after graduating, Guth had a hard time finding a permanent job, partly because of the intense competition for university professor positions due to the baby boom, and he spent nine years traveling across the country pursuing temporary post-doctorate jobs related to physics, including time spent at Princeton to , Columbia to , Cornell to and at the Linear Accelerator Center at Stanford to His early focus at Princeton was on particle physics, particularly the study of quarks , the elementary particles that make up protons and neutrons.
Once again he made use of earlier work by Steve Weinberg, namely his Grand Unified Theory an attempt to unify the electromagnetic , weak and strong nuclear forces.
As a result of quantum tunneling , the false vacuum would eventually decay into a low- energy true vacuum, and Guth found that the decay of the false vacuum at the beginning of the universe could produce some amazing results, including a rapid expansion at ever-increasing rates, which he called cosmic inflation. Guth first released his ideas on cosmic inflation in a seminar at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center in early , and he went overnight from being worried about his job prospects to being besieged with offers.
He returned to MIT in , becoming professor of physics in For some time, however, he could find no way to end inflation so that stars and galaxies could form , often referred to as the "graceful exit" problem, and he considered his own theory something of a failure because of this.
More recently, Guth has expressed his belief that our universe is just one of many universes that came into existence among countless others as part of a multiverse. Guth continues to lecture at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology MIT , and has written over 60 technical papers related to the effects of cosmic inflation and its interactions with particle physics. Alan Guth Books See the additional sources and recommended reading list below, or check the physics books page for a full list.
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THE INFLATIONARY UNIVERSE
The shortcoming that inflation is intended to fill in is the basic fact that although the Big Bang theory is called the Big Bang theory it is, in fact, not really a theory of a bang at all; it never was. I agree with what Paul said at the end of his talk about comparing these two models; it is yet to be seen which one works. But there are two grounds for comparing them. One is that in both cases the theory needs to be better developed. This is more true for the cyclic model, where one has the issue of what happens when branes collide.
The fate of the universe depended on its density. If the density of the universe was large enough, it would collapse into a singularity , and if the actual density of the matter in the cosmos was lower than the critical density, the universe would increasingly get much bigger. The GUT explained all the fundamental forces known in science except for gravity. It established that in very hot conditions, such as those after the Big Bang, electromagnetism, the strong nuclear force, and the weak nuclear force were united to form one force. Weinberg also was the one who emphasized the idea that the universe goes through phase transitions, similar to the phases of matter, when going from high energy to low energy.