Contemporaneous sources[ edit ] Shepseskare was a king of Ancient Egypt , the fourth  or fifth  ruler of the Fifth Dynasty. Egypt was unified at the time, with its capital located at Memphis. No copies of the Aegyptiaca have survived to this day and it is now known only through later writings by Sextus Julius Africanus and Eusebius. Nefercheres and Cheres are believed to be the hellenized forms for Neferirkare and Neferkhare that is Neferefre , respectively.
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Few private monuments from this period have been found at Saqqara. From the Eighteenth Dynasty onward many high officials built tombs at Saqqara. While still a general, Horemheb built a large tomb here, although he later was buried as pharaoh in the Valley of the Kings at Thebes.
Other important tombs belong to the vizier Aperel , the vizier Neferrenpet , the artist Thutmose , and the wet-nurse of Tutankhamun , Maia. Many monuments from earlier periods were still standing, but dilapidated by this period. Among other things, he restored the Pyramid of Unas and added an inscription to its south face to commemorate the restoration.
He enlarged the Serapeum , the burial site of the mummified Apis bulls , and was later buried in the catacombs. The Serapeum, containing one undisturbed interment of an Apis bull and the tomb of Khaemweset, were rediscovered by the French Egyptologist Auguste Mariette in New Kingdom monuments[ edit ] Several clusters of tombs of high officials, among which the tombs of Horemheb and of Maya and Merit.
Reliefs and statues from these two tombs are on display in the National Museum of Antiquities at Leiden, the Netherlands, and in the British Museum , London. After the New Kingdom[ edit ] During the periods after the New Kingdom, when several cities in the Delta served as capital of Egypt, Saqqara remained in use as a burial ground for nobles. Moreover, the area became an important destination for pilgrims to a number of cult centres.
Activities sprang up around the Serapeum, and extensive underground galleries were cut into the rock as burial sites for large numbers of mummified ibises, baboons, cats, dogs, and falcons. Store rooms were broken into, but the monuments were mostly unharmed. It is thought that the mummified animals, mostly dogs, were intended to pass on the prayers of their owners to their deities. The last time a similar mask was found, was in Within the remains of cat mummies were unearthed gilded and wooden statues of cats and one in bronze dedicated to the cat goddess named Bastet.
In addition, funerary items dating back to the 12th Dynasty were found besides the skeletal remains of cats. Another interesting fact is that the tomb had a tunnel entrance generally typical for pyramids.
Kamil Kuraszkiewicz. Investigations were carried for almost two decades in the area near Djoser Pyramid, the oldest pyramid in the world. Archaeologists revealed the graves of noblemen from the period of the 6th dynasty, dating to the 24thst century BC and graves of indigent people dating approximately to the 6th century BC - 1st century AD. The scientists identified that most of the bodies were poorly preserved and all organic materials, as well as, the wooden caskets decayed.
This is rejected by other Egyptologists, such as Michel Baud , owing to the lack of evidence for a regency or interregnum between Djedkare and Unas. Seipel contends that Meresankh was finally buried in a smaller mastaba in Saqqara North after she fell into disgrace. For example, the tomb of Kaemtjenent mentions vizier Rashepses, who served during the reign of Djedkare. These include Kekheretnebti , [note 9]  whose filiation is clearly indicated by her other title of "Beloved of Isesi",  Meret-Isesi , [note 10]  Hedjetnebu , [note 11]   and Nebtyemneferes. In particular, the king loses his role as the sole guarantor of the afterlife, which now becomes available beyond the immediate royal circle. A group of mastabas was thus constructed for princess Kekheretnebti and her daughter Tisethor, princess Hedjetnebu, the courtiers Mernefu and Idu, who was buried with his wife Khenit, and prince Neserkauhor. This chapel was most likely built during his reign.
Few private monuments from this period have been found at Saqqara. From the Eighteenth Dynasty onward many high officials built tombs at Saqqara. While still a general, Horemheb built a large tomb here, although he later was buried as pharaoh in the Valley of the Kings at Thebes. Other important tombs belong to the vizier Aperel , the vizier Neferrenpet , the artist Thutmose , and the wet-nurse of Tutankhamun , Maia. Many monuments from earlier periods were still standing, but dilapidated by this period. Among other things, he restored the Pyramid of Unas and added an inscription to its south face to commemorate the restoration.