Now in a thoroughly revised and updated sixth edition, the Handbook is more essential than ever. Comprehensive and authoritative, the Handbook covers every new development in the field of chemical processing with new sections on: Environmental pollution control--with key governmental regulations on air, water, and solid-waste pollution; New cogeneration technology, including electrical production and engineering advances; The chemistry and manufacture of batteries and other energy-storage devices; New photographic and imaging products; Electroplating and other surface-treatment technologies; Biotechnology--the basics of DNA, gene splicing, and cell culturing. Prepayment by check or money order in U. Or you may charge the purchase through the ABE.
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Demineralization and Desalting. Demineralization systems are very wiclely employed, not only for conditioning water for high-pressure boilers, but also for conditioning various process and rinse waters. The ion-exchange systems chosen vary according to l the volumes and compositions of the raw waters, 2 the effluent-quality requirements for different uses, and 3 the comparative capital and operating costs. Briefly, if silica removal is not required, the system may consist of a hydrogen-cation-exchanger unit and a weakly basic anionexchanger unit, usually followed by a degasifier to remove, by aeration, most of the carbon dioxide formed from the bicarbonates in the first step.
When silica removal is required, the system may consist of a hydrogen-cation-exchanger unit and astrongly basic anion-exchanger unit, usually with a degasifier between the units, as shown in Fig.
For uses where the very highest quality qf effluent is required, this may be followed by secondary "polishing" unit s consisting of either l a hydrogen-cation-exchanger unit and a strongly basic anion-exchanger unit or 2 a single unit containing an imimately mixed bed of a hydrogen-cation exchanger and a strongly basic anion exchanger. The only other process for removing all the ions in water is distillation.
Both distilled water and deionized water should be transported through stainless steel or glass to keep the pure water from corroding the transport lines. Block tin has been employed for this purpose for many years but has the disadvantage of extreme softness.
Aluminum and molded polyvinyl chloride pipes are now reasonably satisfactory substitutes for conducting "pure" water.
Polyethylene, polypropylene, and polycarbonates are also sometimes used Desalting, or desalinization, is commonly applied to any process used to effect l partial or 2 complete demineralization of highly saline waters such as seawater. Process 1 applies to lowenng the saline content to a degree which renders the water suitable for drinking purposes preferably ppm salines or less and other general uses.
Process 2 applies mainly to furnishillg water sllitahle for use in highpressure boilers and for certain other industrial uses. The iOIl-exchange demineralization processes described earlier in this chapter are not applicable to the desalting of highly saline waters; so other processes must be used The main methods in current practice Jrl the Lniteu States are electrodialysis and reverse osmosis.
Several other methods have been used including multistage Dash evaporation. The high cost of heat has contributed to the ongOlI1g sWitch from therm3l plants to reverse osmosis ones.
Prog, 71 11 80 The makers of the various thermal processes are busy trying to improve their economic considerations. One of the newest processes combines vertical tube evaporation and vapor compression and increases the performance ratio PR from 21 to The usual multistage flash evaporation process has a PH maximum of 14 and reverse osmosis has The U. All types of processes are currently in use, but the new plants being built are nearly all reverse osmosis units. The largest desalting plant in the world is being built near Yuma, Ariz.
The treaty also specifies that the United States will deliver to Mexico This incoming water raises the salinity of the river to as much as ppm, making the water unusable for agricultural use. This desalting plant will be a reverse osmosis unit and is designed for a capacity of This water will be blended with raw water to add an additional Trw ton removal mav vary!
RO has [. Prog 77 7 72
Chemical Process Industries 5th Ed - Shreve's.pdf
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Shreve Chemical Process Industries fifth ed.pdf
Shreve's Chemical Process Industries